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Conductivity

Conductivity Measurement Ė Do You Comply With the
Pharmacopoeias?

Authors: John J. Barron & Colin Ashton Ė Technical Services Department, Reagecon Diagnostics Ltd, Shannon Free Zone, County Clare, Ireland

Abstract

Although the water conductivity monographs of Ph. Eur. and USP have been in place for several years,there is still considerable confusion within the pharmaceutical industry on their interpretation and implementation. This paper gives a detailed interpretation of these regulations, including official clarification of the Ph. Eur conductivity monograph that these authors have received from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines. As well as covering the measuring equipment and test methodology required for compliance, this paper also explains why the use of low-level, aqueous conductivity standards is essential for regulatory compliance.

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The Selection and Use of Instruments for Accurate
Conductivity Measurement

Authors: John J. Barron & Colin Ashton Ė Technical Services Department, Reagecon Diagnostics Ltd, Shannon Free Zone, County Clare, Ireland

Abstract

Conductivity instruments should only be used if they can produce measurements of the required quality and format, are suitable for their measuring environment and are user-friendly. This paper describes all of the key characteristics of conductivity instruments, enabling analysts to assess if conductivity instruments meet their requirements. Information is given on how analysts can select these instruments in an efficient and effective manner. Details are also given of the quality measures that are required when commissioning and using conductivity instruments to ensure that analysts can obtain maximum confidence in all of their conductivity measurements.

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Equipment Qualification and its Application to
Conductivity Measuring Systems

Authors: John J. Barron and Colin Ashton - Reagecon Diagnostics, Shannon Free Zone, County Clare, Ireland.

(This paper was originally published in Volume 11, No.11 Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical Measurement. The original publication is available at http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00769-006-0178-9

Abstract

It is only possible to obtain analytical results that are suitable for their intended purpose if the equipment used is capable of producing measurements of the required quality. To ensure that this requirement is met, analysts should define the performance criteria required from instruments, ensure that only suitable instruments are selected for analytical measurements and confirm that these instruments continue to meet these criteria for their entire operational life. This process should be conducted on a formal, documented basis, known as Equipment Qualification. In addition to describing the key elements of Equipment Qualification for all analytical instruments, this paper gives specific guidance on its application to conductivity systems that has never previously appeared in the literature. The benefits of performing Equipment Qualification are highlighted and guidance is given on the selection of Control Standards and why the equipment vendor performing stages of Equipment Qualification can be of benefit to the user. The relationship between Equipment Qualification and Method Validation is discussed, including how these activities play a major role in determining the quality control measures that should be applied to routine analysis.

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Stable Low Level Conductivity Standards

Authors: John J. Barron & Colin Ashton Ė Reagecon Diagnostics Ltd, Shannon Free Zone, Shannon, County Clare, Ireland.

Abstract

Many scientists are concerned about the virtual non-existence of low-level conductivity standards. Where such standards have been reported, independent studies have shown them to be unstable, nonmatrix compatible or not reaching the low conductivity levels required for modern measurement. This paper presents stability data on an aqueous 5?S/cm conductivity standard, which has never previously been reported, and introduces a stable, aqueous 1.3?S/cm conductivity standard that is new to science. Such standards address the concerns previously raised and provide analysts with improved confidence in their low-level analytical measurements.

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The Application of Good Laboratory Practice in the
Selection and Use of Accurate, Traceable Conductivity
Standards

Authors: John J. Barron & Colin Ashton Ė Technical Services Department, Reagecon Diagnostics Ltd, Shannon Free Zone, County Clare, Ireland

Abstract

All analytical measurements, including conductivity measurements, must be of suitable accuracy and must be proven correct if they are to be fit for purpose. This paper describes how these requirements are achieved through the application of good laboratory practice in the selection and use of calibration and control standards. For high quality analytical measurements, establishing measurement traceability and quantifying the Uncertainty of Measurement are essential. This paper describes how these factors can be established and the critical role that standards play in determining these factors and thus ensuring the quality of conductivity test measurements. As well as giving specific information on conductivity standards, this paper gives details relevant to the selection and use of all analytical standards

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The Effect of Temperature on Conductivity Measurement

Authors: John J. Barron & Colin Ashton Ė Technical Services Department, Reagecon Diagnostics Ltd, Shannon Free Zone, County Clare, Ireland

Abstract

The conductivity of all solutions changes as the solutionsí temperature changes. It is a fundamental, practical requirement in the field of conductivity measurement that test measurements taken at different temperatures can be compared. This comparison can be facilitated by the use of Temperature Compensation, which provides an estimate of the samplesí conductivity at a common reference temperature. This paper describes the principle of Temperature Compensation and provides details of the different types of Temperature Compensation that are available to the analyst so that the most appropriate type can be selected for the analystís measurement application.

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The Selection, Use, Care and Maintenance of Sensors for
Accurate Conductivity Measurement

Authors: John J. Barron & Colin Ashton Ė Technical Services Department, Reagecon Diagnostics Ltd, Shannon Free Zone, County Clare, Ireland

Abstract

As is the case with all measurements, the selection of appropriate sensors and their correct use is essential for the accurate measurement of conductivity. This paper outlines the different types of conductivity sensors that are available to the analyst and the factors that should be considered when selecting conductivity sensors for measurement applications. As well as giving recommendations on the suitability of different types of conductivity sensors for various applications, recommendations are given on the calibration, use and maintenance of conductivity sensors to maximize the accuracy of test measurements and provide increased confidence in conductivity measurements.

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